21.16.6 内容协商

You can configure how Spring MVC determines the requested media types from the request. The available options are to check the URL path for a file extension, check the "Accept" header, a specific query parameter, or to fall back on a default content type when nothing is requested. By default the path extension in the request URI is checked first and the "Accept" header is checked second.

The MVC Java config and the MVC namespace register json, xml, rss, atom by default if corresponding dependencies are on the classpath. Additional path extension-to-media type mappings may also be registered explicitly and that also has the effect of whitelisting them as safe extensions for the purpose of RFD attack detection (see the section called "Suffix Pattern Matching and RFD" for more detail).

Below is an example of customizing content negotiation options through the MVC Java config:

_@Configuration_
_@EnableWebMvc_
public class WebConfig extends WebMvcConfigurerAdapter {

    _@Override_
    public void configureContentNegotiation(ContentNegotiationConfigurer configurer) {
        configurer.mediaType("json", MediaType.APPLICATION_JSON);
    }
}

In the MVC namespace, the <mvc:annotation-driven> element has a content- negotiation-manager attribute, which expects a ContentNegotiationManager that in turn can be created with a ContentNegotiationManagerFactoryBean:

<mvc:annotation-driven content-negotiation-manager="contentNegotiationManager"/>

<bean id="contentNegotiationManager" class="org.springframework.web.accept.ContentNegotiationManagerFactoryBean">
    <property name="mediaTypes">
        <value>
            json=application/json
            xml=application/xml
        </value>
    </property>
</bean>

If not using the MVC Java config or the MVC namespace, you'll need to create an instance of ContentNegotiationManager and use it to configure RequestMappingHandlerMapping for request mapping purposes, and RequestMappingHandlerAdapter and ExceptionHandlerExceptionResolver for content negotiation purposes.

Note that ContentNegotiatingViewResolver now can also be configured with a ContentNegotiationManager, so you can use one shared instance throughout Spring MVC.

In more advanced cases, it may be useful to configure multiple ContentNegotiationManager instances that in turn may contain custom ContentNegotiationStrategy implementations. For example you could configure ExceptionHandlerExceptionResolver with a ContentNegotiationManager that always resolves the requested media type to "application/json". Or you may want to plug a custom strategy that has some logic to select a default content type (e.g. either XML or JSON) if no content types were requested.

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